--  Part Five  --

Human Needs

This part is intended to outline/simplify/explain/expand a bit on Maslow's observations and contributions and identified 'needs'... so far this is a chunk of material that i'm working with, the sources are in links below, almost none of the info below is my own, I'm not sure how i'll source it, or organize it, or include different apsects of certain cultural traditions using modern knowledge, i don't how i'll do this part yet really, not fully anyhow, i just know some of the information that i want to cover... I also want to touch a bit on parental responsibilities, parental meaning both maternal and paternal, and some of the typical roles exhibited by females in regards to being new parents, and some of the typical father/provider sorts of examples and illustrations... this section is much to-be-continued:

First, Humanistic Psychology

Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential.

Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth. Self-actualized people are those who were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of.

The growth of self-actualization (Maslow, 1962) refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life. For Maslow, a person is always 'becoming' and never remains static in these terms. In self-actualization, a person comes to find a meaning to life that is important to them.

As each individual is unique, the motivation for self-actualization leads people in different directions (Kenrick et al., 2010). For some people self-actualization can be achieved through creating works of art or literature, for others through sport, in the classroom, or within a corporate setting.

Define 'Self-actualization'

Maslow (1962) believed self-actualization could be measured through the concept of peak experiences. This occurs when a person experiences the world totally for what it is, and there are feelings of euphoria, joy, and wonder.

It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a 'happy ever after' (Hoffman, 1988).

Maslow offers the following description of self-actualization:

 'It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.

The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions' (Maslow, 1943, p. 382–383).

Deficiency Needs versus Growth Needs

This five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).

Deficiency needs arise due to deprivation and are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the motivation to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become.

Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

 1. Physiological needs - these are biological requirements for human survival, e.g. air, food, drink, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.

If these needs are not satisfied the human body cannot function optimally. Maslow considered physiological needs the most important as all the other needs become secondary until these needs are met.

 2. Safety needs - once an individual’s physiological needs are satisfied, the needs for security and safety become salient. People want to experience order, predictability and control in their lives. These needs can be fulfilled by the family and society (e.g. police, schools, business and medical care).

For example, emotional security, financial security (e.g. employment, social welfare), law and order, freedom from fear, social stability, property, health and wellbeing (e.g. safety against accidents and injury).

 3. Love and belonging needs - after physiological and safety needs have been fulfilled, the third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belonging. Belonging, refers to a human emotional need for interpersonal relationships, affiliating, connectedness, and being part of a group.

Examples of belonging needs include friendship, intimacy, trust, and acceptance, receiving and giving affection, and love.
 4. Esteem needs are the fourth level in Maslow’s hierarchy and include self-worth, accomplishement and respect. Maslow classified esteem needs into two categories: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (ii) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).

Maslow indicated that the need for respect or reputation is most important for children and adolescents and precedes real self-esteem or dignity.

 5. Self-actualization needs are the highest level in Maslow's hierarchy, and refer to the realization of a person's potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Maslow (1943) describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.

Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one individual may have a strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire may be expressed economically, academically or athletically. For others, it may be expressed creatively, in paintings, pictures, or inventions.


1. Biological and physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.

3. Love and belonging needs - friendship, intimacy, trust, and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

4. Esteem needs - which Maslow classified into two categories:

(i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and...

(ii) the need to be accepted and valued by others (e.g., status, prestige).

5. Cognitive needs - knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability.

6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. A desire “to become everything one is capable of becoming”(Maslow, 1987, p. 64).

8. Transcendence needs - A person is motivated by values which transcend beyond the personal self (e.g., mystical experiences and certain experiences with nature, aesthetic experiences, sexual experiences, service to others, the pursuit of science, religious faith, etc.).


Hierarchy of needs summary

(a) human beings are motivated by a hierarchy of needs.

(b) needs are organized in a hierarchy of prepotency in which more basic needs must be more or less met (rather than all or none) prior to higher needs.

(c) the order of needs is not rigid but instead may be flexible based on external circumstances or individual differences.

(d) most behavior is multi-motivated, that is, simultaneously determined by more than one basic need.


Characteristics of self-actualizers:

  • Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience
  • They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty
  • Able to look at life objectively
  • Spontaneous in thought and action
  • Unusual sense of humor
  • Peak experiences
  • Need for privacy
  • Highly creative
  • Democratic attitudes
  • Strong moral/ethical standards
  • Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional
  • Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people
  • Accept themselves and others for what they are
  • Problem-centered (not self-centered)
  • Concerned for the welfare of humanity



Behavior leading to self-actualization:

(a) Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration;

(b) Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths;

(c) Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority;

(d) Avoiding pretense ('game playing') and being honest;

(e) Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority;

(f) Taking responsibility and working hard;

(g) Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up.

The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above. Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics. However, self-actualization is a matter of degree, 'There are no perfect human beings' (Maslow,1970a, p. 176).

 It is not necessary to display all 15 characteristics to become self-actualized, and not only self-actualized people will display them.

 Maslow did not equate self-actualization with perfection. Self-actualization merely involves achieving one's potential. Thus, someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize. Less than two percent of the population achieve self-actualization*.

 By studying 18 people he considered to be self-actualized*** (including Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein) Maslow (1970) identified 15 characteristics of a self-actualized person.

*** My own notes here …   This is one of the areas that I differ from Maslow, based on the extraordinary folks that had accomplished remarkable things, or were very influential, or displayed exceptional intelligence, or whatever it is that we want to consider the 18 folks that Maslow expanded his studies on/upon, whatever it is that those extraordinary people really were, it’s my perspective that a person that lives their life with purpose and mutual respect, and exercising whatever capacity/potential that we have, even if it’s folding paper, if that’s the extent that we can contribute to society then we can still be ‘self-actualizing’… Or, operating in our gifts and exercising them for other people’s benefits as well as our own. It's of my opinion that Maslow read-up and interviewed some highly functioning/intelligent people that made enough significant contributions to society that they were deemed to have been operating at their 'potential'. We all have our own genetics and gifts and obstacles, and thus, are unique... our uniqueness comes with a determination to survive and grow, and includes a potential that most of us may never understand. There is a difference in owning/possessing physical attributes (potential), and to exercise and operate with our 'greatest' potential, and Maslow wrote some observations about some folks with strong potential that utilizes their gifts to help other people too... anyways, here is more of Maslow stuff…



 Beyond Psychology – Wholeness of Parenting

Search: characteristics qualities traits of female

Wiki’s words: Traits traditionally cited as feminine include gracefulness, gentleness, empathy, humility, and sensitivity, though traits associated with femininity vary across societies and individuals, and are influenced by a variety of social and cultural factors.

Pretty good article from The Atlantic: https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2015/01/what-happens-to-a-womans-brain-when-she-becomes-a-mother/384179/


Indian culture/value maternal versus paternal nurturing


A mother is the first one to know and connect with her child. Even after birth mother is the first care-giver to her children. The way they interact with child during the early months and years leave a deep impact on child. It will get reflected in the social and emotional setting of child in later years.

2. Giving Proper Environment for Right Development

Mothers are responsible for the environment that a child gets from the very beginning. Giving apt space for movement, creativity and play offers right environment for child development.

3. Child’s Behavioral Development

A mother knows her child more than anyone else. Therefore, child’s behavioural development is closely observed her. Observing child and listening to her voice gives mother an impression of what is going on inside her.

4. Instils Trust and Security

Mothers can teach children how to trust and be trustworthy. Once this is understood by child, she will be confident and emotionally secure. Be around your children when they need you and help them become better. Your unconditional love and support will help them improve their selves.

5. Family Bonding

A mother helps her child learn about the importance of family as she is the back bone of the family and holds everyone together. Have family meals together and encourage your child to spend time with family members.

6. Be kind, Loving and Caring

If you are kind, loving and caring to your child in daily activities, it will automatically teach her to be the same kind of person when she grows. Your behaviour towards your child has a lasting impact on her development not only when she is a child, but after she grows up as well.

7. Be Thoughtful and Sensitive

When you understand and respond properly the way your child is thinking, your child will grow up to be a sensitive person. She will be able to understand other person’s perspective also. This will be very helpful in maintaining relationships.

8. Positive Attitude

Since a mother is soft and handles things in a positive way, it teaches the child that no matter whether life is tough, it can be handled in a better way. You can discuss the problems with your children and explain how you are going to tackle it.

9. Role of Routine and Discipline in Life

Since a mother helps a child maintain a regular set of pattern in early days, it conveys a message that things can be managed easily and comfortably by following a routine.

10. Hard Work

A child learns to work hard from her mother. On the other hand your child might see that at the end of the day you get tired but if you explain the pleasure and satisfaction that you get from working hard, the right message will be delivered.

A mother supports and helps her child in improving herself throughout her life. Role of a mother greatly influences child’s overall development and well-being.


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Search: characteristics qualities traits of male


Wiki’s words: Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, and expected of boys and men. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across different cultures, subcultures, races and historical periods.[8]Traits traditionally viewed as masculine in Western society include strength, courage, independence, leadership, and assertiveness


Fathers play an important role in a child's development and can affect a child's social competence, performance in school and emotion regulation.


Fathers can also affect a child's wellbeing indirectly. A supportive relationship between parents is linked to better self-regulation in a child.


1. Father is Always a Protector

Children feel safe and secured when they have their father around. Children can concentrate on their work and activities better when they feel secured so father has the responsibility to persuade his children that he is there to protect them from any problem.

2. Opens Up the World for the Kids

Father is like a big window that opens up the entire world in front of the children. The children start getting acquainted with the entire world through the eyes of their father. For the children their father is the best guide to teach them what is what in this world and fathers have the responsibilities to keep up to their child’s exception.

3. Unconditional Love

Fathers have the responsibility to make sure that their children know how much their fathers love them and they love them without any condition. Fathers must not encourage their children in doing things wrong but they must shower their love for their children without going into any condition.

4. Show Love and Respect for the Partner

Fathers must show their love and respect to their partner. Only when fathers show respect and love to their partners, children would learn to respect their mothers and other elders. Fathers should never show any disgrace to the kids’ mothers.

5. Spending Quality Time

Children always appreciate when they find their father spending quality time for them. Quality of time that a father spends with the child is much more important than the quantity of time spent with the child.

6. Teaching Discipline

Fathers must take the responsibility of teaching discipline to their children. Fathers have the responsibility to specify clear boundaries for their children so that they understand what they can do and what they cannot.

7. Teaching Accountability

Fathers can teach the sense of accountability to their children. It is important that children learn the importance of accountability in their life and it is better it is taught to the children by their parents at an early age.

8. Involve In the Studies

Expecting the children to perform well in their exams without even knowing what they are studying is just not done. Fathers must get involve with their kids’ studies. They must not only read to their children rather they should read with their children.

9. Teach Taking Responsibilities

Only when children watch their fathers taking responsibilities, they will learn taking responsibilities at various stages of their lives. Fathers must take enough responsibilities in doing household activities and outside work also. This will encourage their children in being responsible enough.

10. Be a Provider

Children consider their father to be the main provider of all materialistic items. That does not mean that fathers must fulfill all the demands of their children but they must identify the needs of their children and try to fulfill them. Fathers would surely love to fulfill all the needs of their children and family but they should never do it by going beyond their spending limitations and teach their children the importance of savings.

Baby Hygiene

Main Outcome Measures:

(a) Newborn temperature stability was assessed by recording axillary temperatures pre- and postbath, (b) umbilical cord healing was identified by daily observations and infection control surveillance, (c) infant contentment was quantified by applying the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, and (d) maternal pleasure with the bath and confidence with bathing at discharge were self-rated on a 5-point scale.


Tub-bathed babies experienced significantly less temperature loss (t = 4.79, p = .00) and were significantly more content (t =−6.48, p = .00) than were those who were sponge bathed. No differences in cord healing scores were found. Mothers of tub bathed babies rated their pleasure with the bath significantly higher than did mothers of sponge bathed babies (t = 4.15, p = .00). No differences in maternal confidence were noted.


Tub bathing is a safe and pleasurable alternative to sponge bathing in healthy, term newborns.